Jakarta and climate change
With a coastline of ca. 81,000 km, and more than 17,500 islands, Indonesia is extremely vulnerable to coastal inundation. Jakarta, the capital and with 8.8 million inhabitants the largest city of Indonesia, is located in a lowland area with a relatively flat topography in the delta of several rivers, the main one being the Ciliwung River. Due to its naturally flood-prone location, Jakarta has a long history of both coastal and riverine flooding.
Jakarta’s tropical climate is characterized by year-round high temperatures of 24-33°C. The average annual rainfall in Jakarta over the period 1978-2007 was 1640 mm (64.6 inches). Most of the rain falls in the wet season from November to May (on average 1300 mm (51.2 inches)) with just 340 mm (13.4 inches) of rain falling on average during the dry season from May until October. This seasonal difference is determined by the monsoonal climate of the region. Climate data for Jakarta show the frequent occurrence of high intensity, short duration storms, especially in the afternoons and evenings. The highest observed precipitation total for a single month in Jakarta is more than 800 mm (31.5 inches).