An increase in rainfall intensity and weather variability could present significant challenges for the management of the water resources. Periods of drought may affect the reliability of Singapore's water supply, while sudden episodes of intense rainfall could overwhelm the drainage system and lead to flash floods. With climate change, these extreme weather events could increase in both frequency and intensity.
Climate change will also affect the diversity of plants and animals, and this will alter the ecosystem and natural processes such as soil formation, nutrient storage and pollution absorption. If coastal vegetation is adversely affected, there could be changes in the position and rate of erosion along the shore.
Singapore could experience warmer temperatures as a result of both climate change and urban heat island effect. An increase in indoor air temperature could then adversely affect thermal comfort. With a population of 5.4 million, Singapore is also one of the most densely populated countries in the world. In addition, Singapore is situated in a region where vector-borne diseases, such as dengue, are endemic. While climate change may not be the main factor for the increased occurrence of vector-borne diseases, historically, more dengue cases are observed during the warmer periods of the year.